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T ata nama kimia adalah serangkaian aturan persenyawaan-persenyawaan kimia yang disusun secara sistematis. Ionik terbentuk dari kation ion positif dan anion ion negatif. Banyak senyawa ionik merupakan senyawa biner, yaitu senyawa yang terbentuk dari hanya dua unsur.
Untuk senyawa ionik biner, penamaan dimulai dari kation logam kemudian diikuti anion nonlogam dan diberi akhiran "-ida". Untuk kation yang memiliki lebih dari 1 jenis muatan bilangan oksidasidiberi keterangan angka romawi di tengahnya sesuai besarnya muatan contoh senyawa biner. Penamaan dimulai dari unsur no-logam pertama diikuti nama unsur non-logam yang diberi akhiran -ida. Jika dua unsur non-logam dapat membentuk lebih dari dua jenis senyawa maka digunakan awalan Yunani, suatu awalan yang sesuai dengan indeks dalam rumus kimianya .
Pengecualian untuk senyawa molekular yang mengandung hidrogentidak menggunakan awalan Yunani. Untuk asam biner terdiri dari dua jenis unsurpenamaan dimulai dari kata "asam" diikuti nama sisa asamnya. Untuk asam yang terdiri dari tiga jenis unsur, penamaan dimulai dari kata "asam" diikuti nama sisa asamnya, yaitu anion poliatom .
Basa adalah zat yang di dalam air dapat menghasilkan ion OH —. Larutan basa bersifat kaustik, artinya jika terkena kulit terasa licin seperti bersabun. Pada umumnya basa adalah senyawa ion yang terdiri dari kation logam dan anion OH—. Penamaan senyawa basa yaitu dengan menuliskan nama logam kation di depan kata hidroksida. Senyawa kimia — A chemical compound is an entity consisting of two or more atoms, at least two from different elements, which associate via chemical bonds.
Many chemical compounds have a numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service. For example, water is composed of two atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, the chemical formula is H2O. A compound can be converted to a different chemical contoh senyawa biner by interaction contoh senyawa biner a chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the compounds, and then bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms.
A chemical element bonded to a chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element. Examples are the contoh senyawa biner hydrogen and the polyatomic molecule sulfur. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure held together in a spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, failing the two or more atom requirement, though they often consist of molecules composed of multiple contoh senyawa biner.
There is varying and sometimes inconsistent nomenclature differentiating substances, which include truly non-stoichiometric examples, from chemical contoh senyawa biner, other compounds regarded as chemically contoh senyawa biner may have varying amounts of heavy or light isotopes of the constituent elements, which changes the contoh senyawa biner of elements by mass slightly.
Characteristic properties of compounds include that elements in a compound are present in a definite contoh senyawa biner, for example, the molecule of the compound water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2,1. In addition, compounds have a set of properties. The physical and chemical properties of compounds differ from those of their constituent elements, however, mixtures can be created by mechanical means alone, but a compound can be created only by a chemical reaction.
Some mixtures are so combined that they have some properties similar to compounds. Other examples of compound-like mixtures include intermetallic compounds and solutions of metals in a liquid form of ammonia. Compounds may be described using formulas in various formats, for compounds that exist as molecules, the formula for the molecular unit is shown. For polymeric materials, such as minerals and many metal oxides, the elements in a chemical formula are normally listed in a specific order, called the Hill system.
Litium — Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element, like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. For this reason, it is stored in mineral oil.
When cut open, it exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with moist air corrodes the surface quickly to a silvery gray. Because of its reactivity, lithium never occurs freely in nature, and instead, appears only in compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion, is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines.
On a commercial scale, lithium is contoh senyawa biner electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride, the nucleus of the lithium atom verges on contoh senyawa biner, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides.
Because of its relative instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though the nuclei are very light in atomic weight. For related reasons, lithium has important links to nuclear physics, the transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium-6 deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
These uses consume more than three quarters of contoh senyawa biner production, Lithium is found in variable amounts in foods, primary food sources are grains and vegetables, in some areas, the drinking water also provides significant amounts of the element. Human dietary lithium intakes depend on location and the type of foods consumed, traces of lithium were detected in contoh senyawa biner organs and fetal tissues already in the late 19th century, leading to early suggestions as to possible specific functions in the organism.
However, it took another century until evidence for the essentiality of lithium became available, in studies conducted from the s to the s, rats and goats maintained on low-lithium rations were shown to exhibit higher mortalities as well as reproductive and contoh senyawa biner abnormalities.
Lithium appears to play an important role during the early fetal development as evidenced by the high lithium contents of the embryo during the early gestational period.
Like the other metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation. Because of contoh senyawa biner, lithium is a conductor of heat and electricity as well as a highly reactive element. Lithiums low reactivity is due contoh senyawa biner the proximity of its electron to its nucleus.
Kalium contoh senyawa biner Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K and atomic number It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, in the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. Potassium in nature only in ionic salts. It contoh senyawa biner found dissolved in sea water, and is part of many minerals, naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40K is radioactive.
Traces of 40K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body, Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in Group 1 of the periodic table.
They have a similar energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. That they are different elements combine with the same anions to make similar salts was suspected in Potassium ions are necessary for the function of all living cells, fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium.
Potassium is contoh senyawa biner second least dense metal after lithium and it is a soft solid with a low melting point, and can be easily cut with a knife. Freshly cut potassium is silvery in appearance, but it begins to tarnish toward gray immediately on exposure to air, in a flame test, potassium and its compounds emit a lilac color with a peak emission wavelength of Neutral potassium atoms have 19 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas argon.
This process requires so little energy that potassium is readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen, in contrast, the second ionization energy contoh senyawa biner very high, because removal of two electrons breaks the stable noble gas electronic configuration. Potassium is an active metal that reacts violently with oxygen in water. With oxygen it forms potassium peroxide, and with water potassium forms potassium hydroxide, the reaction of potassium with water is dangerous because contoh senyawa biner its violent exothermic character and the production of hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen reacts again with atmospheric oxygen, producing water, which reacts with the remaining potassium and this reaction requires only traces of water, because of this, potassium and the liquid sodium-potassium — NaK — are potent desiccants that can be used to dry solvents prior to contoh senyawa biner.
Because of the sensitivity of potassium to water and air, reactions with other elements are only in an inert atmosphere such as argon gas using air-free techniques. Berilium — Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a rare element in the universe, usually occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays. Within the cores of stars beryllium is depleted as it is fused and it is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.
Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl and chrysoberyl, as a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. Contoh senyawa biner improves many physical properties when added as an element to aluminium, copper, iron. Beryllium does not form oxides until it reaches high temperatures. Tools made of copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. The high thermal conductivities of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in thermal management applications, Beryllium is a steel contoh senyawa biner and hard metalloid that is brittle at room temperature and has a close-packed hexagonal crystal structure.
It has exceptional stiffness and a high melting point. Other significant properties are high specific heat and thermal conductivity, which make beryllium the metal with the best heat dissipation characteristics per unit weight, in combination with the relatively low coefficient of linear thermal contoh senyawa biner, these characteristics result in a unique stability under conditions of thermal loading.
Naturally occurring beryllium, save for slight contamination contoh senyawa biner cosmogenic radioisotopes, is essentially pure beryllium-9, Beryllium contoh senyawa biner a large scattering cross section for high-energy neutrons, about 6 barns for energies above approximately 10 keV. Contoh senyawa biner single primordial beryllium isotope 9Be also undergoes a neutron reaction with neutron energies over about 1.
Beryllium also releases neutrons under bombardment by gamma rays. As a metal, beryllium is transparent to most wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays, making it useful for the windows of X-ray tubes. Both stable and unstable isotopes of beryllium are created in stars, primordial beryllium contains only one stable isotope, 9Be, and therefore beryllium is a monoisotopic element.
Radioactive cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere of the Earth by the cosmic ray spallation contoh senyawa biner oxygen, 10Be accumulates at the soil surface, where its relatively long half-life permits a long residence time before decaying to boron The production of 10Be is inversely proportional to activity, because increased solar wind during periods of high solar activity decreases the flux of galactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth.
Kalsium — Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number Free calcium metal is too contoh senyawa biner to occur in nature, Calcium is produced in supernova nucleosynthesis. Calcium is a trace element in living organisms. It is the most abundant metal by mass in animals, and it is an important constituent of bone, teeth. In cell biology, the movement of the calcium ion into, Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are often taken as dietary supplements.
Calcium is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines, Calcium has a wide variety of applications, almost all of which are associated with calcium compounds and salts.
Calcium metal is used as a contoh senyawa biner, desulfurizer, and decarbonizer for production of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. In steelmaking and production of iron, Ca reacts with oxygen, Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, contoh senyawa biner, limestone and aids in production in the glass industry. It also has chemical and optical uses as mineral contoh senyawa biner in toothpastes, Calcium hydroxide solution is used to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in a gas sample bubbled through a solution.
The solution turns cloudy where CO2 is present, Calcium arsenate is used in insecticides. Calcium carbide is used to make acetylene gas and various plastics, Calcium chloride is used in ice removal and dust control on dirt roads, as a conditioner for concrete, as an additive in canned tomatoes, and to provide contoh senyawa biner for automobile tires.
Calcium citrate is used as a food preservative, Calcium cyclamate is used as a sweetening agent in several countries. In the United States, it has been outlawed as a suspected carcinogen, Calcium gluconate is used as a food additive and in vitamin pills. Calcium hypochlorite is used as a swimming pool disinfectant, as an agent, as an ingredient in deodorant.
Calcium permanganate is used in rocket propellant, textile production, as a water sterilizing agent. Calcium phosphate is used as a supplement for animal feed, fertilizer, in production for dough and yeast products, in the manufacture of glass. Calcium phosphide is used in fireworks, rodenticide, torpedoes, Calcium sulfate is used as common blackboard chalk, as well as, in its hemihydrate form, Plaster of Paris.
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