Indicateurs pour scalper dans les options binaires

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The constant length of such codes is an advantage since it allows to easily create all kinds of interface options, such as encoding, decoding, transcoding, combinaison indicateur option binaire en. The downside regular codes is that cnaque code contains more or less useless or redundant bits. Indeed, to represent the number "1", it should be used as many bits, for example 8, for the number "". It follows that the mass of data is greatly increased, slowing transmission.

To avoid this, the prior art has proposed using lengths or irregular sizes codes. These so-called irregular codes are more combinaison indicateur option binaire en, since they use a number of just necessary and sufficient bits to form the different combinations, such as for example a single bit to "0" or "1", two bits for the "2" or "3" combinaison indicateur option binaire en only seven bits for the number "".

Their variable length makes it difficult Interfacing spots, as well as the separation of the two adjacent codes in the measure where the number of bits changing from one code to the other. To separate each code. The state of the technique proposed by the Huffman code, to know the length of each code with a specific start code. In the same way, other codes have proposed adding a header to each combination of three bits indicating their length.

The addition of this element indicative irregular codes is unsatisfactory in practice for the following reasons.

Indeed, it appears that some alternative codes have because of this added element of the Long sizes than those codes to replace, which destroys the desired effect of reducing the mass of data. De plus, ces codes interdisent d'utiliser toutes les combinaisons binaires imaginables pour une Longueur choisie de codes.

Moreover, these codes prohibit use all possible binary combinations for a chosen length codes. That is why until now irregular proposed codes, such as Huffman or modified Huffman, are still not reliable enough to be eligible for use as widespread as the regular code, even if the regular use codes unnecessary bits. Another object of the invention to provide a method for converting adapted to be compatible with compression techniques or data compression that reduce an original file into a smaller number of codes which their mass is reduced by the process of the invention, in a smaller number of bits.

A further object of the invention is to provide a communication method compatible with all types of data transmission used. To achieve these objectives, the method according to the invention comprises: For regular code formed solely of bits of value 0 or 1, the method according to the invention preserves the bits to obtain N.

According to another characteristic of the invention, the method of conversion and transmission also ensures the reception and the inverse conversion irregular codes combinaison indicateur option binaire en in order to reconstruct the corresponding regular code. The object of the invention also provides an apparatus comprising: As can be seen more clearly in FIG. Combinaison indicateur option binaire en the example, it combinaison indicateur option binaire en considered combinaison indicateur option binaire en 16 possible combinations with 4 bits.

Thus, for all regular code formed by a combination of bits 0 and 1, the one or more bit s. For regular code formed solely of bits of value 0 or 1, the conversion operation does not involve any removal of bits, in so far as these regular codes have only one type of bit.

Or the bits of the lower weight, which have the same value but different from that of the next bit are deleted. IT appears therefore that the removal of tail bits for all Regular codes provide two irregular 4-bit codes and a complete set of irregular codes 1 through 3 bits.

La comparaison des fig. Also, In the implementation of the conversion operation, iL should be selected for all regular codes, or the suppression technique tail bits, or that of the head bits. In any case, every regular code corresponds to a specific irregular code and vice versa. IL Note that no prefix or stubborn attached to irregular codes allows use as units of information and coding all possible combinations of bits for a code given size.

N some of the possible regular codes among the 2 combinations. The implementation of an end code signal makes it possible to recognize the last bit of each irregular code transmitted combinaison indicateur option binaire en thus to distinguish Irregular codes from each other.

The shape of this signal end code depends on the mode or selected transmission type. This end signal code is differentiated Codification of bits 0 combinaison indicateur option binaire en 1, according to an own coding technique in transmission mode considered. Thus, in the case of a communication by serial interface, RSC type where it is possible to reserve three son for transport information, f Ls The first two are used for the common return and the data bits, while the third wire is used for transmitting the end code signal.

This communication of the synchronous type aims to transmit, on the third wire, one end code signal simultaneously with the transmission of the last bit of each irregular code.

In the case of the combinaison indicateur option binaire en of a similar transmission in asynchronous mode or iso-synchronous that requires the addition of a start-bit and a stop-bit frame for each character to be transmitted, the ending signal code consists of a RZ stop-bit, that is to say, with reset to 0.

It is recalled that type of code NRZ is one whose polarity is the same throughout the term 16 shots overall clock and a type code RZ is one combinaison indicateur option binaire en involves a return in this interval 0of a given duration, for example equal to five clock cycles.

In the case of a frequency modulation link relating to voice frequencies over the telephone network or those in HF, VHF or UHF, modulating the microwave, it may be considered to represent the end code signal by a new modulation frequency.

In other types of transmission, such as amplitude modulation or sequential connections storage systems data tape or magnetic or optical disks, each technique uses a specific coding to represent the end code signal. The method of the invention enables all transmission techniques while offering the advantage of handling a bit more mass reduced by the implementation of irregular codes.

En effet, par exemple. It must be considered that the mass of the transmitted bits can be further reduced by the following techniques. Thus, it is conceivable to combinaison indicateur option binaire en, preferably irregular codes with the smaller size compared to the size of regular codes to be transmitted.

For this, iL should replace the regular code representing a given character by having a regular code as corresponding irregular code you want. This substitution can be fixed so that it can be integrated into a ROM to enable computer assisted devices not to serial communication with irregular codes. This substitution can also be variable, so combinaison indicateur option binaire en to offer the advantage of adapting to each file to be transmitted, so that the weight saving data to be transmitted is improved.

IT must be understood that the implementation of a compaction or compression software reduces an original file into a smaller number of codes, while the invention reduces the mass of these codes in a lower number of bits. To further improve compaction data, it may be envisaged to submit Irregular codes obtained according to the invention to another conversion operation according to the method described combinaison indicateur option binaire en. Each set of same length J code is a complete set of regular code J bits.

An end signal code is then defined for irregular codes ae each subsequent row of irregular codes for their recognition at ae transmission. Of course, it is conceivable to start delete operations and those of defining an end code signal for Irregular code subsequent row.

As shown more clearly in FIG. The communication apparatus 1 according to the invention comprises a transmitter circuitreceiver circuit and control circuit providing combinaison indicateur option binaire en transmission control and synchronization commands towards the circuits and The transmitter circuit comprises an input buffer blocka conversion unit and a transmission block As seen more clearly in FIG. The register provides temporary storage of a parallel code provided by the link and that is either a command code to be transmitted by the link to the control circuita regular code to be transmitted to the conversion unit via a parallel data connection The conversion unit includes an input control module connected to the link and combinaison indicateur option binaire en with a status display The register includes a serial input provided with a module containing the bit to be inserted into the registry and whose operation will be better understood in the following description.

The register is connected to the output, by means of a parallel link The, at outputs of the control module The module provides the translation from a regular code in an irregular code and provides, inter alia, to block transmissionby a serial linedata bits corresponding to the successive irregular codes to be transmitted.

The transmission block comprises a switching and serial transmission of combinaison indicateur option binaire en module connected as input to a data module The module receives as input line and contains the outgoing bit during transmission. The module is also connected as input to a module generates a start-bit signal and to a module generates a stop-bit signal. The module is connected to the module via a linkensuring supply of a signal indicating a code to be transmitted.

Combinaison indicateur option binaire en module is connected to the output control module via a link through which passes the end flag of each irregular code to be transmitted. The module provides an offset signal to the register through the module and generates, also, a signal activation indicator of the register state The module outputs, by its serial linkall the bits to be transmitted corresponding to the data bits and bits to recognize the beginning and end of each transmitted combination.

These bits are encoded depending on the type of transmission. The apparatus described above operates as follows. The status indicator allows the transmitter to drop terminal are a new 8-bit code which is considered to be transmitted by block By way of example and to better understand the method according to the invention, it is considered the code to be transmitted is constituted by the combination corresponding to the ASCII code for the letter C.

If it is chosen to remove, for example, the bits of the combination placed in the tail and having a same value, the irregular code corresponding to transmit is It is recalled that the tail bits LSB are placed combinaison indicateur option binaire en the right of the combination, while the head or MSB bits are located to the left of the code.

Advantageously, the method according to the invention is intended to transmit the irregular codes starting, for each of them, by the end having no undeleted bit. In the example taken, combinaison indicateur option binaire en is appropriate to begin transmitting the bit placed on the side of the head of the code. Also, the regular code must be placed in the registerso that the leading bits out of this last first.

To do this, combinaison indicateur option binaire en must be considered that the register is connected to the moduleso that the first cell ru register is connected to the The most significant line and so on, while the cell n " is connected to the transmission line of the least significant bit. Loading this code in the register is authorized by the indicator which was activated at the end of the final session of transmission in a state indicating the available register.

Par un tel chargement. For such a load. The indicator end code passes the inactive state, while the line triggers the transmission by the modulea start-bit transmitted by the module The start-bit is the first element of the code outgoing and the first kick start-bit signal resets the clock to the idle state. At the end of the emission of the Start-bit, the module outputs an offset signal causing the register in a first shift ensuring The output of the bit contained in the first n-cell.

The value of bit 0 in this case is transmitted by the linethe modulethen the module which provides its serial transmission via line The transmission of a signal can be shifted one bit combinaison indicateur option binaire en combination placed in the register and to introduce into the same register, opposite its output, namely in the cell n g, the value of the bit contained in the module whose operation will be described below.

In this case, the module contains the bit placed in the n-cell register loading or before the first shift, namely the value of 1.

After the first shift, the register contains the combination shown in the second line of fig. When the first bit has been transmitted by the modulethe latter emits a subsequent shift signal has the effect of out Bit 1 of the first cell n. A value 1 bit is introduced into the cell n g in since the last bit of the combination obtained after the first shift takes a value equal to 1.

Shift operations and introduction are continued for each successive bit of the code, as long as all the bits of code placed in the register does not have the same value. In the example illustrated, after the sixth combinaison indicateur option binaire en all bits of the register have a value equal to 1. In this case, the output modulewhich includes an exclusive OR gate, then generates an end code indicator Lineso as to indicate that the transmission current bit is the last bit of the code to be transmitted.

To combinations containing 0 and 1, the input control module activates the serial input module to take the value of the bit placed in the last cell n R of the shift registeras seen in the previous example. Thus, as can be seen more clearly in Fig. Insofar it is chosen to remove the tail bits, the regular code is placed in the registerso that the leading bits out first. After loading, the register includes the inverse of the combination code of the letter "H", while the part to be transmitted is only It combinaison indicateur option binaire en that after the fifth shift, the combination of the irregular code is completely transmitted, while that in the registerall cells have the same polarity bits, which causes the emission of the end code indicator.

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For character data fields, optional terminating characters allow you to mark the end of each field in a data file with a field terminator and the end of each row with a row terminator. Terminating characters are one way to indicate to programs that read the data file where one field or row ends and another field or row begins.

When you use native or Unicode native format, use length prefixes rather than field terminators. The following table lists the supported characters for terminators.

This means that using the null control character as a field or row terminator is different than having no field or row terminator at all. If a terminator character occurs within the data, it is interpreted as a terminator, not as data, and the data after that character is interpreted as belonging to the next field or record. Therefore, choose your terminators carefully to make sure that they never appear in your data. For example, a low surrogate field terminator would not be a good choice for a field terminator if the data contains that low surrogate.

The row terminator can be the same character as the terminator for the last field. Generally, however, a distinct row terminator is useful. When you bulk export char or nchar data, and want to use a non-default terminator, you must specify the terminator to the bcp command.

You can specify terminators in any of the following ways: With a format file that specifies the terminator on a field-by-field basis. Without a format file, the following alternatives exist: Using the -t switch to specify the field terminator for all the fields except the last field in the row and using the -r switch to specify a row terminator.

If you specify the -n native data or -N Unicode native switch, terminators are not inserted. If an interactive bcp command contains the in or out option without either the format file switch -f or a data-format switch -n , -c , -w , or -N , and you have chosen not to specify prefix length and field length, the command prompts for the field terminator of each field, with a default of none: Generally, the default is a suitable choice.

However, for char or nchar data fields, see the following subsection, "Guidelines for Using Terminators. After you interactively specify all of the fields in a bcp command, the command prompts you save your responses for each field in a non-XML format file.

In some situations, a terminator is useful for a char or nchar data field. Any data column that contains a null value is considered variable length. In the absence of prefix lengths, a terminator is necessary to identify the end of a null field, making sure that the data is correctly interpreted.

For a long fixed-length column whose space is only partially used by many rows. In this situation, specifying a terminator can minimize storage space allowing the field to be treated as a variable-length field. This example bulk exports the data from the AdventureWorks. Department table to the Department-c-t. La commande bcp contient les commutateurs suivants.

The bcp command contains the following switches. For more information, see bcp Utility. At the Microsoft Microsoft Windows command prompt enter: The fields are separated by a comma. When you bulk import char or nchar data, the bulk-import command must recognize the terminators that are used in the data file. How terminators can be specified depends on the bulk-import command, as follows: Specifying terminators for an import operation uses the same syntax as for an export operation.

For more information, see "Specifying Terminators for Bulk Export," earlier in this topic. Terminators can be specified for individual fields in a format file or for the whole data file by using the qualifiers shown in the following table.

If a character data file uses a non-default terminator, it must be defined in the format file. The examples in this section bulk import character data form the Department-c-t. Before you can run the examples, you must create this table. The following example bulk imports the Department-c-t. This command uses the same command switches as the bulk export command.

At the Windows command prompt enter: This is the default field terminator. This is the default row terminator. Specifies that the data fields be loaded as character data. Virgule , servant d'indicateur de fin de champ. Specifies a comma , as the field terminator. Specifies the row terminator as a newline character. This is the default row terminator, so specifying it is optional.

If -T is not specified, you need to specify -U and -P to successfully log in. Specifies the field terminator to be used for character and Unicode character data files. Specifies the row terminator to be used for character and Unicode character data files.