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Internet access is widely available in New Zealand. Like Australia, it first became accessible to university students in the country in Fibre to the home cover over half of the main towns and cities. The phone and fibre networks are mostly owned by network company Chorus Limited , which wholesale services to retail ISPs.
Parts of Wellington , Kapiti and Christchurch have cable internet access. Nearly all of the population is covered by 3G mobile broadband , with 4G available to the majority.
Satellite internet is available throughout the country. There are more than 80 ISPs, with two of them having three-quarters of the market. International connectivity is mainly provided by the Southern Cross Cable. Most of the telephone infrastructure is owned by Chorus.
Contrary to the usual practice overseas, most connections are at full speed, instead plans differ in the amount of data included. Chorus cannot sell services directly to customers, instead, they wholesale services to internet retailers at regulated prices.
Fibre to the home is being rolled out to the urban areas of the country via the Ultra-Fast Broadband scheme see below. The network is being constructed using Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks  GPON technology, which is reliable, comparatively low-cost and has been used in projects such as Google Fiber. P2P fibre is available in business areas of the cities from several companies, including Chorus, Vodafone, CityLink and Vector.
There are three physical cellphone networks in the country. Vodafone provides 2G and 3G coverage to There are a total of about 50, fixed wireless connections using a variety of providers. As a condition of the subsidy, Vodafone also wholesales this service to other retailers.
Spark also offers a fixed wireless service over LTE in rural areas. Woosh offered a fixed wireless service in Southland until 1 July The maximum speed was 1.
There are smaller regional providers covering rural areas. They typically use the unlicensed 2. Almost every household is able to access dial-up, thanks to Chorus inheriting the formerly state-owned copper phone network. For the ten thousand most remote households, their phone lines are connected back to the exchange via a radio system called customer multi-access radio CMAR. These households can only access The most common cap is between 20—50GB per month.
On average, each household uses 45GB of data per month. Most mobile phone data plans have set caps, with any excess paid for per MB although extra data blocks can be purchased to avoid the expensive casual data pricing.
In the third quarter of , the ISPs with more than 1. The data used is from June With the increased competition in the broadband sector in New Zealand and the growing number of broadband plans and ISP's, saw the launch of a dedicated broadband comparison website in January , glimp which was the first of its kind in New Zealand.
Helping New Zealander's save time and money by providing the best deals for their needs. Followed by the launch of Broadband Compare in June However, by the mids, with the advent of the Post Office's X based packet switching network, and a degree of de-regulation, it became possible to link the various institutions together at a cost.
In and a number of meetings were held by the various research institutions to plan for a broad-based research network that would provide basic research electronic communication mail, file sharing and remote access. By everything was in place other than the last key component — international traffic. John Houlker did not let up. At the start of the millennium, there were a number of ISPs offering free dial-up internet to users.
Unlike free ISPs overseas, these did not survive on advertising or e-commerce revenue, instead, they were funded by interconnecting charges. The first company to take advantage of this situation was Compass Communications, which set up Freenet in February When users make a modem call from their Telecom phone line to their free ISP on Clear, Telecom had to pay the interconnection fee to Clear, which ranged up to tens of millions each year.
Telecom quickly remedied the situation by forcing all ISPs to use special dial-up numbers starting with , which were exempted from interconnection fees. There was a progressive roll out into local exchanges. Telecom progressively introduced lower cost home options.
This allowed ISPs to bill for their client's data usage. Telecom provided this in addition to the existing Jetstream plans. In February Telecom announced its intention to offer a speed upgrade on their wholesale.
It was reported that some providers would likely reject the offer, though Telecom believed that negotiations were continuing well. In April , Telecom New Zealand introduced new cheaper services with download speeds up to 3. In May local loop unbundling was announced as part of a comprehensive telecommunications package. In early , there were growing concerns about below par broadband in New Zealand.
In mid , Telecom still had control over the network including speeds and how much data they supplied each "UBS" customer. Amidst growing pressure from the government, Telecom boosted downloads to 3.
Competitors and customers reported slower than expected speeds,  with one ISP director criticizing Telecom's backhaul network. In May , the government announced a comprehensive telecommunications package including unbundling of the local loop to allow other ISPs to compete more effectively against Telecom's DSL offerings.
On 26 October , Telecom "unleashed" the download speeds on their network, meaning download speeds went as fast as the lines could go. Additionally, there was also an unlimited download plan, which was also uncapped, however kb upload, and a fair usage policy which is put in place to temporarily limit the speeds for customers who have high usage or make use of peer-to-peer connections via traffic shaping — basically limiting a so-called "unlimited" plan. This plan only lasted for a few months until it became clear that Telecom were restricting all traffic not just peer-to-peer during all times of the day instead of the 8 peak hours per day stated.
Because of this, all subscribers on the so-called "Go Large" plan were given a refund for up to 2 months worth of service, and the plan was eventually made no longer available to new subscribers. The government mandated local loop unbundling in , thus allowing other ISPs to set up their own infrastructure and services, and using only Telecom's existing copper wiring and exchanges. The then Telecommunications Minister, David Cunliffe , expected that the market would feel the effects from —, with policy to be enacted commencing at the Budget in May As a part of the policy, the Government was to take steps to encourage private sector investment in improving rural telecommunications services, and to further open up the marketplace to alternative delivery media, such as fibre optics , cable and satellite.
Telecom had a monopoly on the local loop until recently. In December , Telecom NZ was split into a retail company later renamed Spark, and Chorus , a separate infrastructure company. Chorus has completed in early a fibre to the node roll out in towns and cities with exchanges that have more than lines.
Vodafone NZ became Telecom's biggest competitor after acquiring ihug in and then acquiring TelstraClear in TelstraClear invested heavily in infrastructure throughout New Zealand by laying fibre networks in areas in Wellington , Nelson , and Christchurch. Vodafone are continuing to build a fibre backbone throughout New Zealand. In June , Google started testing Project Loon in Canterbury, a plan to provide internet services via large helium balloons around the globe.
In mid , Vodafone started upgrading its Rural Broadband Initiative network to 4G, while Spark also launched a rural 4G broadband service. Chorus ran a, now completed, "Gigatown" competition. International connectivity is mainly provided by the Southern Cross Cable , as well as the old Tasman 2 cable. It is majority owned by Spark formerly Telecom.
A new company Pacific Fibre proposed another international cable  between New Zealand and the United States, with claims in by one of the proponents Sam Morgan that competition would cut international capacity costs, and result in more generous internet data caps.
On 1 August , Pacific Fibre announced they were unable to secure sufficient investment and the planned cable was discontinued. The Department of Internal Affairs runs a voluntary internet censorship scheme. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it. Internet censorship in New Zealand. Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 12 March Ministry of Economic Development. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 8 March Multi-Access Radio for Remote Telephony".
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Retrieved 23 June