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The content offered here is recommended knowledge for anyone looking to perform measurement control using a computer as well as anyone considering automating data logging or measurements. The signals from sensors that measure surrounding natural factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate are often analog signals, and most control actuators move according to analog signals. On the other hand, only digital signals can be handled by computers. For this reason, in order to input a signal from a sensor using a computer, or to output a signal to an actuator, it's necessary to have a device that can bridge the analog signal and the digital signal handled by the computer.

This device is responsible for converting analog signals from external devices to digital signals that can be processed by a computer. This device converts the digital data from a computer to an analog signal before outputting that signal to an external device. When inputting an external analog quantity into a computer, in order to display the quantity properly digitally, an infinite number of digits is need for the corresponding digital quantity.

This is not possible with a computer capable of handling only a limited number of digits, even from the viewpoint of the circuit technology that makes up the converter.

The most effective way to solve this problem is to keep the number of digits within the acceptable range by rounding or using either the floor or the ceiling.

In other words, this means replacing an amount within a certain range with a representative value. This is referred to as quantization. When quantizing analog values represented by a solid line, you get a stepped line. This makes it possible to express any analog signal using a finite value. This technology is active in things many people are familiar with, for example, in cellular phones.

Cell phones make calls by converting voices analog to digital sounds. For example, the following figure shows a staircase in decimal numbers with the first step as 1, as well as the result if the decimal numbers are replaced with binary numbers.

In this way, an analog quantity can be digitalized at 4 bits. This is the basic idea behind quantizing analog quantities. Let's look at the features of two types of isolation. Note that non-isolated types do not employ an isolation element.

Because it's possible to prevent electrical interference from being introduced, this method allows for worry-free usability even if noise is easily generated in the wiring or if there is a concern of the computer malfunctioning or becoming damaged. This allows interference between channels to be prevented and allows for accurate sampling even if the equipment connected to the various channels have different ground levels.

A photocoupler is a device that contains a light-emitting diode coupled to a phototransistor. The light-emitting diode outputs light when exposed to an electrical current about 10 mA. The phototransistor receives this light, which turns the phototransistor ON, which results in an electrical current. Part of this optical signal is electrically insulated from the outside.

In other words, this shows how many sensors signal sources or actuators controlled objects can be connected. In the specifications found in catalogs and the like, you may find expressions like X number of single-ended channels or X number of differential channels. Single-ended input, which uses a signal wire and a ground auto binary signals proof 2018 epc for a two-wire connection, is a method of measuring the voltage of a signal source using the potential difference from ground.

For analog input, this is the most common input method and has the advantage of using only two lines for any one signal source.

Compared with a differential input, a disadvantage of single-ended input is that it is easily affected by noise. Differential input uses two signal wires and a ground wire for a total of three wires for measuring the voltage of a signal source.

The auto binary signals proof 2018 epc source potential A—B is measured by taking the difference in potential between ground and point A and between ground and point B.

In this way, the noise from the ground is cancelled for A—B, which gives differential input the advantage of less susceptibility to noise compared to single-ended input. However, one disadvantage is that three wires are needed for one signal source, meaning that the number of channels that can be auto binary signals proof 2018 epc is half that compared with single-ended input.

Resolution refers to the extent of fineness that the analog signal can be digitally represented approximately. A high resolution means that the voltage range can be finely divided, resulting in a more accurate conversion to digital values. This is the range of analog voltage or current that can be input or output. Auto binary signals proof 2018 epc example, let's assume that we are using a sensor that converts an analog amount to 0 to 5 volts. So, between a device with an input range of 0 to 10 V and one with 0 to 5 V, which is effective?

If both have a resolution of 12 bits, the smallest divisible voltage for the 0 to 10 Auto binary signals proof 2018 epc board is about 2. Because the sensor only outputs 0 to 5 V, the device with an input range of 0 to 5 V will provide the opportunity for finest judgment.

Gain refers to magnification. Some analog input devices are equipped with a function that can amplify the input auto binary signals proof 2018 epc. For example, with an external signal of 0 to 2. The conversion rate refers to the fineness at auto binary signals proof 2018 epc an analog signal can be converted to a digital signal over a specific interval of time. It also shows how much time it takes for auto binary signals proof 2018 epc data to be output as analog data.

Higher conversion speeds mean conversions with higher repeatability are possible. Errors are represented in units of 1 LSB. With a bit resolution device, the voltage between V and 0 V can be auto binary signals proof 2018 epc as 32, data segments, where V is "H" and 0 V is "H.

The methods for displaying these systems are as follows. A voltage of 0 V is given a digital value of 0, and the auto binary signals proof 2018 epc value increases in proportion to the increase in voltage. A unipolar form auto binary signals proof 2018 epc used. The maximum lowest value of negative voltage is given a auto binary signals proof 2018 epc value of 0.

In this way, 0 V is assigned a digital value in the middle, and the largest positive voltage value is given the largest digital value. A bipolar form is used. To obtain the two's complement, the most significant bit of the offset binary code is reversed.

A two's complement expression is an easy-to-use code for calculations on a computer. This data format can be found in bipolar auto binary signals proof 2018 epc. When performing sampling over multiple channels, a multiplexer method using multiplexers switching units or a simultaneous sampling method is used.

The multiplexer method performs sampling while switching the multiplexer, meaning that simultaneous conversion of more than one channel is impossible because time is needed to change between channels. With the simultaneous sampling method, there are two types: Either type is capable of performing simultaneous conversion over multiple channels. In a system where the analog input channels are switched through a multiplexer method, to perform sampling over multiple channels, the settable sampling period must maintain the following relationship.

For sampling clocks that determine sampling cycles, the following main methods are used. A timer element capable of setting the sampling period is installed in the device. As a clock source, this is a method for performing periodic conversions. Internal clocks are useful for time-series processing at precise and rapid cycles. External clocks can be used for devices equipped with external clock input auto binary signals proof 2018 epc.

Conversion is performed in synchronization with a pulse signal or other signal input from an external source. This method is useful for synchronizing with external devices. A software clock is a method of performing periodic conversions by synchronizing with the system timer on a PC and sending a start command from the software.

However, because errors with VisualBasic's timer control and other functions are large, this method is not suitable for systems requiring fast and accurate cycles.

A trigger is a source for determining the timing at which to start or stop a conversion. Starting and stopping can both be set independently. The main triggers are as follows. Conversion operation starts or stops when the pre-set edge movement rising or falling is input from the external control signal.

Conversion is started or stopped according to the signal changes for a specified channel. Buffer memory is where conversion data is temporarily stored. Such memory not only enables fast and high-performance analog input processing but also significantly reduces the load on the computer. Depending on the application, buffer memory can employ either the FIFO method or the ring method.

With the FIFO First In, First Out method, converted data is stored in the buffer memory in a first-come, first-served behavior with data written to the buffer memory first being read first in chronological order. The converted data read from within the memory is delivered sequentially, with reading of the oldest conversion data remaining in the buffer memory always readable. Data that exceeds the FIFO memory capacity will be discarded and not written, and data that has been read will be discarded from the buffer memory.

The ring method arranges the storage area in the buffer memory like a ring. Conversion data is written sequentially, and when storing beyond the memory capacity, areas where prior conversion data is stored are overwritten. Ring memory is useful when data is not normally obtained but data near a conversion operation stop due to some event should be obtained.

With the ring method, once data is captured, it can be read multiple times before it is overwritten. This intermediate CPU cannot be used for other processes. In the following figure, other processes are only possible after 4 and 5 are finished. During bus mastering, the CPU instructs bus master processing for the device, allowing data to be sent to the main unit's memory directly from the device without going through the CPU.

In the following figure, other processes can be performed while 2 and 3 are processing. This function generates priority processing externally by connecting a certain input terminal to an IRQ interrupt request line on the computer.

By detecting changes in external devices, interruption can be used, for example, in applications that perform specific processing and for processing emergency high-priority external commands, to name a few. To operate a device, power is needed, but current consumption indicates how much current that board consumes.

This power is usually supplied from the computers expansion bus connector. This means that the total maximum current consumption of the board should auto binary signals proof 2018 epc be more than the rated power capacity of the computer the maximum current that can be supplied to the expansion slot.

If the rated power capacity is exceeded, the computer's power supply voltage will be reduced, which could result in such trouble as runaway. For this reason, it's necessary to take appropriate countermeasures, such as extending the computer's slots by using an "expansion unit".

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